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ANSI C language and libraries reference manual

October 1992
INMOS document number: 72-TDS-347-01
462 Pages

© INMOS Limited 1992.

About this manual

frontcover 72-TDS-347-01

This manual is the Language and Libraries Reference Manual to the ANSI C toolset and provides a language reference for the toolset and implementation data.

The manual is divided into two parts: 'Runtime Library' and 'Language Reference', plus appendices.

The first section Runtime Library:

  • Introduces the runtime library and summarizes the header files.
  • Provides a detailed description of each library function, in alphabetical order.
  • Describes how to modify the runtime startup system by removing segments not required by the user's application. Only very experienced users should attempt this.

The 'Language Reference' section describes:

  • New features in the ANSI standard.
  • ANSI C toolset language extensions.
  • ANSI C toolset implementation details.

The three appendices cover:

  • Syntax of language extensions.
  • ANSI compliance data.
  • Further explanation of the cyclic redundancy function provided.


	Contents overview
		Host versions
		About this manual
		About the toolset documentation set
		Other documents
		occam and FORTRAN toolsets
		Documentation conventions

Runtime Library

1	Introduction and runtime library summary
	1.1	Introduction
		1.1.1	Accessing library functions
		1.1.2	Linking libraries with programs
		1.1.3	iserver protocols
		1.1.4	Functions which store data in static
	1.2	Header files
	1.3	ANSI functions
		1.3.1	Diagnostics <assert.h>
		1.3.2	Character handling <ctype.h>
		1.3.3	Error handling <errno.h>
		1.3.4	Floating point constants <float.h>
		1.3.5	Implementation limits <Iimits.h>
		1.3.6	Localization <locale.h>
		1.3.7	Mathematics library <math.h>
		1.3.8	Non-local jumps <setjmp.h>
		1.3.9	Signal handling <signal.h>
		1.3.10	Variable arguments <stdarg.h>
		1.3.11	Standard definitions <stddef.h>
		1.3.12	Standard I/O <stdio.h>
			Characteristics of file handling
		1.3.13	Reduced library I/O functions <stdiored.h>
		1.3.14	General utilities <stdlib.h>
		1.3.15	String handling <string.h>
		1.3.16	Date and time <time.h>
	1.4	Concurrency functions
		1.4.1	Process control <process.h>
		1.4.2	Channel communication <channel.h>
		1.4.3	Semaphore handling <semaphor.h>
	1.5	Other functions
		1.5.1	I/O primitives <iocntrl.h>
		1.5.2	float maths <mathf.h>
		1.5.3	Host utilities <host.h>
		1.5.4	Host channel access utilities <hostlink.h>
		1.5.5	Boot link channel functions <bootlink.h>
		1.5.6	MS-DOS system functions <dos.h>
		1.5.7	Dynamic code loading functions <fnload.h>
		1.5.8	Miscellaneous functions <misc.h>
	1.6	Fatal runtime errors
		1.6.1	Runtime error messages

2	Alphabetical list of functions
	2.1	Format
		2.1.1	Reduced library
		2.1.2	Macros
	2.2	List of functions

3	Modifying the runtime startup system
	3.1	Introduction
	3.2	Overview of system
	3.3	The gsb and use of the IMS_nolink pragma
	3.4	Interface to runtime startup code
	3.5	Details of stage 1 of the runtime startup code
		3.5.1	Initialize static
		3.5.2	Call stage 2 startup code and set up gsb
	3.6	Details of stage 2 of the runtime startup code
		3.6.1	Set up bounds of stack
		3.6.2	Initialize heap
		3.6.3	Initialize pointer to configuration process structure
		3.6.4	Initialize I/O system
		3.6.5	Get command line arguments
		3.6.6	Save exit return point
		3.6.7	Initialize clock
		3.6.8	Call main
		3.6.9	Terminate server if required
	3.7	Interface to main
	3.8	Static initialization
	3.9	Source files supplied and rebuilding
			UNIX based toolsets
			MS-DOS based toolsets
			VMS based toolsets
	3.10	Notes
	3.11	Example 	
		3.11.1	Building the modified runtime system
			For example
			UNIX based toolsets
			MS-DOS/VMS based toolsets

Language Reference

4	New features in ANSI C 	
	4.1	Summary of new features in the ANSI standard
	4.2	Details of new features
		4.2.1	Function declarations
		4.2.2	Function prototypes
		4.2.3	Functions without prototypes
		4.2.4	Declarations
		4.2.5	Types, type qualifiers and type specifiers
		4.2.6	Constants
		4.2.7	Preprocessor extensions
			Compiler directives
			Predefined macros
		4.2.8	Structures and unions
		4.2.9	Trigraphs
			Trigraph escape codes

5	Language extensions
	5.1	Concurrency support
	5.2	Pragmas
	5.3	Predefined macros
	5.4	Assembly language support
		5.4.1	Directives and operations
		5.4.2	size option on __asm statement
		5.4.3	Labels
		5.4.4	Notes on transputer code programming
		5.4.5	Useful built-in variables
		5.4.6	Transputer code examples
			Setting the transputer error flag
			Loading constants using literal operands
			Labels and jumps
			Jump tables
			Loading floating point registers
			Using align/word to return an element of a table
			Inserting raw machine code

6	Implementation details
	6.1	Data type representation
		6.1.1	Scalar types
		6.1.2	Arrays
		6.1.3	Structures
			Example 1 (structuring on a 32-bit processor)
			Example 2 (structuring on a 32-bit processor)
		6.1.4	Unions
	6.2	Type conversions
		6.2.1	Integers
		6.2.2	Floating point
	6.3	Compiler diagnostics
	6.4	Environment
		6.4.1	Arguments to main
			Configured case
			Unconfigured case
		6.4.2	Interactive devices
	6.5	Identifiers
	6.6	Source and execution character sets
			Shift states for encoding multibyte characters
			Integer character constants
			Locale used to convert multibyte characters
			Plain chars
	6.7	Integer operations
			Bitwise operations on signed integers
			Sign of the remainder on integer division
			Right shifts on negative-valued signed integral types
	6.8	Registers
	6.9	Enumeration types
	6.10	Bit fields
	6.11	volatile qualifier
	6.12	Declarators
	6.13	Switch statement
	6.14	Preprocessing directives
			Constants controlling conditional inclusion
			Date and time defaults
	6.15	Static data layout
		6.15.1	Local static data layout
		6.15.2 Constant static objects
	6.16	Calling conventions
		6.16.1 Parameter Passing
		6.16.2 Calling Sequence
		6.16.3 Rules for aliasing between formal parameters
	6.17	Runtime library


A	Syntax of language extensions
	A.1	Notation
	A.2	#pragma directive
	A.3	__asm statement

B	ANSI standard compliance data
	B.1	Translation
	B.2	Environment
	B.3	Identifiers
	B.4	Characters
	B.5	Integers
	B.6	Floating point
	B.7	Arrays and pointers
	B.8	Registers
	B.9	Structures, unions, enumerations, and bit fields
	B.10	Qualifiers
	B.11	Declarators
	B.12	Statements
	B.13	Preprocessing directives
	B.14	Library functions
	B.15	Locale-specific behavior

C	CRC Resume
	C.1	Summary of functions
	C.2	Cyclic redundancy polynomials
		C.2.1	Format of result
	C.3	Notes on the use of the CRC functions
	C.4	Example of use


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